The neutralizing plant consists of storage equipment, reactive dosing and reaction piping.
In most cases, chemical compounds are introduced to facilitate the flotation process. Most of the role of these chemical reagents is to create a surface or structure that allows the absorption or incorporation of the air bubbles. Chemical inorganic reagents such as iron or aluminum and active silicon are used to facilitate the adhesion of solid particles to the formed air bubbles.
Also, various organic polymers may be used to modify the nature of the liquid-liquid, solid-liquid interfaces, or both at the same time. Generally, these compounds are established and dosed after chemical tests have been performed.
The maximum degree of clarification is obtained when reagents are added to the residual water according to the tests performed, quantitatively and qualitatively, and the attention with which the plant is exploited.
During chemical precipitation it is possible to eliminate:
Between 80-90% even up to 100% of the suspended solids,
Between 70-80% to 95% of CBO5,
Between 80-90% to 100% of bacteria,
Compared to a correctly designed and exploited primary decanter designed to achieve 50-70% reduction values for suspended solids, between 25-40% of CBO5 and between 25-75% of bacteria.
Since water has variable characteristics, the required reagent doses have to be determined according to laboratory calculations or a pilot installation.